Climb into Cantor’s Attic, where you will find infinities large and small. We aim to provide a comprehensive resource of information about all notions of mathematical infinity.

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**Sources**

Cantor's Attic (original site)

Joel David Hamkins blog post about the Attic

Latest working snapshot at the wayback machine

- Axiom of Extensionality
- Axiom of Null Set
- Axiom of Pairing
- Axiom of Union
- Axiom Schema of Foundation
- Axiom Schema of $\Sigma_0$-Separation
- Axiom Schema of $\Sigma_0$-Collection
- Axiom of Infinity

Kripke-Platek set theory ($\text{KP}$) is a collection of axioms that is considerably weaker than ZFC. The formal language used to express each axiom is first-order with equality ($=$) together with one binary relation symbol, $\in$, intended to denote set membership.

$L_\alpha$ is a model of $\mathrm{KP}$ for admissible $\alpha$.

Sets are determined uniquely by their elements. This is expressed formally as \(\\forall x \\forall y \\big(\\forall z (z\\in x\\leftrightarrow z\\in y)\\rightarrow x=y\\big).\)

The “$\rightarrow$” can be replaced by “$\leftrightarrow$”, but the $\leftarrow$ direction is a theorem of logic.

There exists some set. In fact, there is a set which contains no members. This is expressed formally \(\\exists x \\forall y (y\\not\\in x).\)

Such an $x$ is unique by extensionality and this set is denoted by $\emptyset$.

For any two sets $x$ and $y$ (not necessarily distinct) there is a further set $z$ whose members are exactly the sets $x$ and $y$.

\[\\forall x \\forall y \\exists z \\forall w \\big(w\\in z\\leftrightarrow (w=x\\vee w=y)\\big).\]Such a $z$ is unique by extensionality and is denoted as $\{x,y\}$.

For any set $x$ there is a further set $y$ whose members are exactly all the members of the members of $x$. That is, the union of all the members of a set exists. This is expressed formally as

\[\\forall x \\exists y \\forall z \\big(z\\in y \\leftrightarrow \\exists w (w\\in x \\wedge z\\in w)\\big).\]Such a $y$ is unique by extensionality and is written as $y = \bigcup x$.

Suppose that a given property $P$ is true for some set $x$. Then there is a $\in$-minimal set for which $P$ is true. In more detail, given a formula $\varphi(x_1,\dots,x_n,x)$ the following is an instance of the induction schema: \(\\forall x\_1, \\ldots, x\_n \\big\[ \\exists x \\varphi(x\_1, \\ldots, x\_n, x) \\rightarrow \\exists y \\big( \\varphi(x\_1, \\ldots, x\_n, y) \\wedge \\forall z \\in y \\neg \\varphi(x\_1, \\ldots, x\_n, z) \\big) \\big\]\)

For any set $a$ and any $\Sigma_0$-predicate $P(x)$ written in the language of ZFC, the set $\{x\in a: P(x)\}$ exists. In more detail, given any $\Sigma_0$-formula $\varphi$ with free variables $x_1,x_2,\dots,x_n$ the following is an instance of the $\Sigma_0$-seperation schema: \(\\forall a \\forall x\_1 \\forall x\_2\\dots \\forall x\_n \\exists y \\forall z \\big(z\\in y \\leftrightarrow (z\\in a \\wedge \\varphi(x\_1,x\_2,\\dots,x\_n,z)\\big)\)

Such a $y$, unique by extensionality and is written (for fixed sets $a, x_1\dots, x_n$) $y=\{z\in a: \varphi(x_1,x_2,\dots,x_n,z)\}$.

If $a$ is a set and for all $x\in a$ there’s a some $y$ such that $(x,y)$ satisfies a given $\Sigma_0$-property, then there is some set $b$ such that for all $x \in a$ there is some $y \in b$ such that $(x,y)$ satisfies that property. In more detail, given a $\Sigma_0$-formula $\varphi(x_1,\dots,x_n,x,y)$ the following is an instance of the $\Sigma_0$-collection schema: \(\\forall a \\forall x\_1 \\dots \\forall x\_n \\big\[\\big( \\forall x\\in a \\exists y \\varphi(x\_1,\\dots,x\_n,x,y)\\big)\\rightarrow \\big(\\exists b \\forall x \\in a \\exists y \\in b \\varphi(x\_1, \\ldots, x\_n, x,y) \\big) \\big\].\)

Some authors include the axiom of infinity in Kripke-Platek set theory which states that there is an inductive set – a canonical example of an infinite set. More precisely: \(\\exists x \\big( \\emptyset \\in x \\wedge \\forall y \\in x (y \\cup \\{y \\} \\in x) \\big).\) The axiom of infinity combined with an instance of $\Sigma_0$-separation imply the axiom of null set so that it be dropped if one assumes the axiom of infinity.